The requirements and how to submit an application can be found on the Swedish Migration Agency Website.
Please not that the permit needs to be applied for and granted ahead of going to Sweden.
For processing time, please visit the Swedish Migration Agency´s website
If you are granted a residence permit and you are a Canadian Citizen you are able to submit the biometric data for the residence permit card in Sweden.
If you require a visa in order to travel to Sweden, you will have to submit the biometric data at the Embassy and receive your residence permit card before entering Sweden.
If you are not a professional athlete and would like to work while you are in Sweden you can apply for a Working Holiday visa, provided that you are a Canadian citizen 18-30 years old, and haven't used this permit as an athlete before. Apply here.