Apply here for a permit if you fulfill the requirements for a professional athlete.
If you are not a professional athlete and would like to work while you are in Sweden you can apply for a Working Holiday visa, provided that you are a Canadian citizen 18-30 years old, and haven't used this permit as an athlete before. Apply here.
If you are not a professional athlete and don't plan to work in Sweden (and won't receive any salary from the club) you can apply for a visitor's permit.
You have to apply and be interviewed for a visitor's permit in person at the Embassy in Ottawa. Please send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org to book an appointment. Application forms and information can be found on the Swedish Migration Agency's website.
Please note, that for all the above permits you need to apply from outside of Sweden.